Nuremberg is a city that is located on the Pegnitz River in the German state of Bavaria. The city covers an area of almost seventy-two square miles and has a population of over five hundred thousand residents. Nuremberg is a city that can trace its roots back to the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the city grew at an exponential rate, mainly because of its location as a trade center. It was also during this time that the city became a Free City under the Emberor Frederick II.
By the fifteenth century, the city became the center of the German Renaissance. The city began a slow decline in the seventeenth century, mainly due to the effect of the Thirty Years War. It would continue this slow decline until the nineteenth century, when the city teetered on bankruptsy. It was during this time that the city became a part of Bavaria. The Bavarian government assummed the city’s debt and guaranteed their payment.
Nuremberg would once again achieve status as a great city during the period prior to World War II. The Nazi Party choose the city to be the site of political conventions known as the Nuremberg rallies. These rallies were held in the city between 1927 and 1938. During the 1935 rally, Hitler ordered the Reichstag to pass the anti-Semitic laws known as the Nuremberg Laws. The Nuremberg Laws were specifically designed to revoke German citizenship from all Jews.
When World War II began, Nuremberg became the headquarters of the military district known as Wehrkreis XIII. It would become an important site of military production, particularly submarines, airplanes and tanks. Joint bombing attacks were made by the Allies up until the spring of 1945. These attacks destroyed close to ninety percent of the city center. As a result over six thousand residents of the city were killed and almost one hundred thousand were displaced. After the war a period of reconstruction began and many medieval buildings were returned to their former appearance. The city was also the location of the Nuremberg Trials.
Today, the city enjoys a strong economic standing in the markets of Eastern Europe and manufactures many items which include electrical products, mechanical equipment, motor vehicles and optical equipment. The city also produces many products including automation and medical technology. Another facet of Nuremberg’s economy is based strongly on tourism. One of the most prominent tourist attractions in the city is Nuremberg Castle. Nuremberg Castle is situated just to the north of the city.
It is composed of three distinct sections. These include the Kaiserburg (emperor’s buildings), the Burggrafenburg and the Stadtische Burganlage. It is not known exactly when the castle was erected, but archaeological evidence suggest that it was built prior to the eleventh century. During World War II, the castle was damaged extensively, but has been subsequently rebuilt back to its former glory.
Another historically rich attraction in the city is the Heilig-Geist-Spital. This hospital was built in the fourteenth century, along with the Holy Spirit Church. The hospital and the church went through an extensive period of development through the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During World War II, the hospital was severely damaged by Allied bombing and the adjoining church was destroyed. The hospital has since been rebuilt back to historical standards, but the church was not.
Today, the location of where the church stood is now a senior citizens home. Another historically important building in the city is St. Lawrence Church (otherwise known as St. Lorenz). St. Lawrence Church is a church that was built in the mid-thirteenth century and is designed in the traditional Gothic architectural style. The church is two hundred and seventy-three feet long, and ninety feet wide. The nave is almost seventy-three feet high and thirty-one feet wide. Inside the church are many signifigant pieces of Gothic art.
These include works by Adam Kraft and Anton Tucher Veit Stoss. Also located in the church are three organs. Combined these have over twelve thousand pipes.